Check out these expert tips on menstruation and menstrual rehabilitation

Updated on Jul 15, 2021 08:21 AM IST  |  263.9K
Check out these expert tips on menstruation and menstrual rehabilitation
Check out these expert tips on menstruation and menstrual rehabilitation

Menstruation, also known as ‘a a period’, is the process of discharging blood and other material from the lining of the uterus at regular intervals of about one lunar month from puberty until menopause, except during pregnancy. The first period usually begins between twelve and fifteen years of age, a point in time known as menarche. Menstruation is a natural process, but in most parts of the world, it is taboo.

Menstrual Health and Hygiene Management

● Using clean and fresh equipment- Women and adolescent girls must use clean menstrual management material to absorb or collect the blood.

● Protect from infection- Soap solution (preferably non-fragrant) water must be used to cleanse the private areas to avoid any infection.

● Disposal- The best choice is to use reusable and non-commercial sanitary materials like reusable pads, menstrual cups and thus generate a lesser amount of menstrual waste as compared to the use of commercial disposable pads. If the product used is reusable, clean it with water, sterilize and store it clean for the next use. If it is disposable, use

proper guidelines.

Choosing between different Menstrual Products:

Sanitary napkins: These are menstrual pads available in different sizes, shapes, lengths and thicknesses. Some have wings that fold at the sides of the underwear. It’s necessary to keep changing the pad every few hours depending on the flow.

Cloth pads: They are reusable but they absorb the menstrual blood, making them soggy and ineffective for period protection. Can lead to infections with prolonged use.

Tampons: It absorbs blood and vaginal secretions by insertion into the vagina during menstruation. Unlike a pad, it is placed internally, inside the vaginal canal. Once inserted correctly, a tampon is held in place by the vagina. It expands while blood gets absorbed.

Menstrual cups: It is eco friendly, reusable, flexible cone-shaped which can be inserted into the vagina. It can collect menstrual fluid. The collected fluid can then be disposed of and the cup can be reused after cleaning it properly.


Menstrual discs: It is round in shape and has a flexible ring with a catch that sits at the base of the cervix in a place called the vaginal fornix.

Menstrual panty: They look and feel like regular underwear but can collect blood. They are washable and can be reused.

Some Menstrual Dysfunctions you should know about

● Premenstrual syndrome - It is an unpleasant or uncomfortable symptom that includes hot flushes, vertigo, muscle cramps, breast soreness, acne, bloating, headache, etc. It can sometimes be so severe that they will need to miss work or school.

● Polymenorrhea - Frequent menstruation at intervals between 2-3 weeks. Blood loss is usually normal.

● Amenorrhea - Absence of menstrual period for more than 3 cycles. Causes include sudden weight loss, stress, PCOS or PCOD, etc.

● Dysmenorrhea - It is characterized by severe pain, cramps during the menstrual period. It includes 2 types; primary which means the common menstrual cramps due to uterine muscle contraction and secondary due to underlying pathology like endometriosis, adenomyosis, etc.


● Polycystic ovarian syndrome - It is a hormonal and metabolic disorder. In this type, the ovaries fail to release eggs due to numerous small fluid-filled follicles. Causes include excess insulin, heredity, excess androgen.


● Endometriosis - It is a condition where endometrial tissue is outside the uterus. This leads to adhesion and scar tissue formation causing severe pain and discomfort.

common symptoms are dysmenorrhea, pain in urinating and intercourse, excess bleeding, etc.


● Postmenopausal bleeding - Bleeding from the genital tract after menopause. Causes include malignancy, vaginitis, uterine prolapse, etc.



Role of Physiotherapy in Menstrual Rehabilitation

Physiotherapy and its rehabilitation play an important role in managing menstrual dysfunctions. Rehabilitation depends on the findings of pelvic floor muscle grade. Individuals with PCOS, endometriosis may have tightness of the pelvic floor while lactating or individuals with low estrogen may have weakness of pelvic floor muscles. It involves treating various menstrual irregularities.

Rehab includes:

● Mirror biofeedback where the mirror can be used to visualize pelvic contractions and relaxations.

● Use of vaginal dilators: After menopause, the vagina becomes drier, less elastic, narrower, and shorter. Vaginal dilators can be used to stretch the vagina and may help in reducing the pelvic floor muscle tightness and spasm over time.


● Kegel exercise: It means to find the right pelvic floor muscles and make them work. Most of them contract abdominals, buttocks, or inner thigh muscles and don't reap the benefits of the exercises.


● Aquatic Therapy- Exercising in warm chest-deep water, helps to relax and reduce the spasm of the tight overactive muscles. The therapy is low impact as the joints are off- loaded. The viscosity of the water helps in the gentle strengthening of the core muscles. Besides, Aquatic Therapy techniques like Watsu and Ai-Chi are great ways to manage and reduce stress.


● NMR: Aids rehabilitation of shortened muscles and tendons.


● Soft tissue mobilisation: Use of hands-on techniques on your muscles, ligaments and fascia with the goal of breaking adhesions and optimizing your muscle function.


● Lower limb stretches, Identifying and activating the right muscles. Relaxing tight and overactive muscles Controlling and doing the right exercise at the right time


● Motor Control- Learning to coordinate the pelvic floor muscles with the diaphragm, the deep abdominals and the other core muscles.


● Controlling abdominal pressure and avoiding damaging the pelvic area with high impact activities, wrong abdominal exercises or coughing.


● Integrating functional exercises according to your daily activities and sports.


About the author: Dr Binal Dave, Lead Physiotherapist in Women’s Health Care and Orthopaedics at AquaCentric Therapy Pvt Ltd


Also Read: Experts reveal impact of negative thoughts on mental health and how to overcome them


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Anonymous : Wow what am amazingly exhaustive article. I was not aware of many things mentioned here .
REPLY 0 4 months ago